Wednesday, April 29, 2009


Rasanya penat juga pada hari ini, setelah hanya tidur tak sampai 2 jam malam tadi kerana tugas, diharap berbaloi jumlah masa itu dengan pencapaian. Inilah percubaan yang benar-benar mencabar diri sebagai seorang pendidik, lantaran tidak berpuas hati dengan hanya kemenangan sebagai Pensyarah Berinovasi peringkat IPGM Kampus Kent bagi tahun 2009. Tentulah diri rasa tercabar apabila bertanding dengan pensyarah lain yang bergelar Dr. peringkat IPGM Zon Sabah, sama ada yang sarat dengan ilmu falsafahnya mahupun dengan tahap keprofesionalismeannya. Namun di sebalik penglibatan ini tentulah sesuatu dapat diperoleh, bukan sahaja nilai tersiratnya tetapi pembinaan nilai kendiri untuk pemantapan nilai keprofesioanalismean sebagai seorang pensyarah. Benarlah percubaan ini menyeronokkan dan meletakkan diri kita dalam kalangan pemikir anak bangsa. Justeru kepuasan terjelma apabila sahaja kita dapat melontarkan idea baru.

Tuesday, April 7, 2009


What is Guided Reading?

Guided reading is a strategy that helps students become good readers. The teacher provides support for small groups of readers as they learn to use various reading strategies (context clues, letter and sound relationships, word structure, and so forth). Although guided reading has been traditionally associated with primary grades it can be modified and used successfully in all grade levels. For example, older students may need to learn new strategies to understand how to read an information book in a way that is going to give them access to the information they are seeking.

"In primary grades children are learning to read and in upper grades they are reading to learn." Anonymous

What is its purpose?

When the proper books are selected, students are able to read with approximately 90% accuracy. This enables the students to enjoy the story because there is not an overwhelming amount of "road blocks" that interfere with comprehension. Students focus on the meaning of the story and application of various reading strategies to problem solve when they do hit a road block in their knowledge or reading ability. By providing small groups of students the opportunity to learn various reading strategies with guidance from the teacher, they will possess the skills and knowledge required to read increasingly more difficult texts on their own. Independent reading is the GOAL - guided reading provides the framework to ensure that students are able to apply strategies to make meaning from print.

How do I do it?
Although the approach to guided reading is going to depend somewhat on your class size and grade level, the following suggestions can be used to provide an initial framework.
Students should be divided into small groups (4-6 students). The younger the students the smaller the groups. (Learn more about grouping students).

Guided reading lessons are to be about 15-20 minutes in duration. Appropriately leveled reading materials must be selected for the group and each child should have his/her own copy of the literature. Learn more about reading levels/leveled materials.

Pre-Reading: The teacher establishes a purpose for reading through prediction making, vocabulary introduction, or discussing ideas that will provide the readers with the background knowledge required for the text.

Reading: The teacher observes the students as they read the text softly or silently to themselves. The teacher provides guidance and coaching to individuals based on her/his observations by providing prompts, asking questions, and encouraging attempts at reading strategy application.

Post Reading: The teacher asks questions to ensure that the text has been comprehended by the readers and praises their efforts. Further, the teacher may observe gaps in strategy application and address these gaps following the reading in a mini-lesson format.

What do all the other students do during the guided reading lesson? When you teach guided reading you are busy observing and instructing a small group of students. The other students in your class must be kept engage in a literacy activity while you are with your GR group. To ensure success of guided reading, be prepared to invest time upfront teaching your students the procedures you would like them to follow while you are busy with the GR groups. Once you are certain that the students can follow the procedures THEN focus on actually teaching guided reading.

View a list of possible literacy centers you can use to engage your "other" students in while you spend your time with a GR group.

How can I adapt it?

There are many ways to adapt guided reading to meet the needs of specific learners. Leveled reading materials, personalized spelling lists, multilevel literacy centers, and opportunities for independent projects all contribute to making the program fairly adaptable.

Tips for adapting:

select one grade-level text and one easier than grade level to read each week so that your weaker students have the opportunity to read with greater ease & confidence consider alternative grouping (interest, social, ability) encourage rereading of selections to increase fluency each time selection is read use reading partners, parent volunteers, and care partners to support the struggling readers and challenge the strong readers encourage reading time to provide more practice time establish a parent volunteer reading program (study buddy)
Assessment & Evaluation Considerations To ensure students are grouped and regrouped in the proper instructional groups ongoing observation and assessment is essential.
Four Blocks - Assessment

Downloads - assessment rubrics for reading, spelling, narrative text and more.

Teacher Resources

If you are interested in implementing guided reading into your classroom, please view our teacher resources page for more in-depth information on the guided reading approach. This page also contains links to valuable Web sites and teacher resources.


An Instructional Strategy for Teachers Grades K–3

The ideas expressed in this work are generalizations and adaptations based on the shared book method developed by Don Holdaway using big books.

Description: Shared Reading is an interactive reading experience that occurs when students
join in or share the reading of a big book or other enlarged text while guided and supported by a teacher or other experienced reader. Students observe an expert reading the text with fluency and expression. The text must be large enough for all the students to see clearly, so they can share in the reading of the text. It is through Shared Reading that the reading process and reading strategies that readers use are demonstrated. In Shared Reading, children participate in reading, learn critical concepts of how print works, get the feel of learning and begin to perceive themselves as readers (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996). Some of the benefits of Shared Reading:
• Allows students to enjoy materials that they may not be able to read on their own.
• Ensures that all students feel successful by providing support to the entire group.
• Students act as though they are reading.
• Helps novice readers learn about the relationship between oral language and
printed language.
• Assists students in learning where to look and/or focus their attention.
• Supports students as they gain awareness of symbols and print conventions, while constructing meaning from text read.
• Assists students in making connections between background knowledge and new information.
• Focuses on and helps develop concepts about print and phonemic connections.
• Helps in teaching frequently used vocabulary.
• Encourages prediction in reading.
• Helps students develop a sense of story and increases comprehension.


Setting and Resources: A sense of community is developed when the time is taken to arrange
for a small group of students, or when appropriate, the whole class, to gather in an area near a
big book, chart/easel, wall story, or text written on the chalkboard, so that all participants can
easily see the enlarged text and engage in the experience comfortably. Having a few items on
hand during a shared reading will allow the teacher or other experienced reader greater flexibility during the experience. Some items may include:

• A chalk board
• A pointing stick (with a rubber tip for safety when possible)
• File cards
• A post-it
• A highlighter marker

These may be used during a session to reinforce teaching objectives for students. Additional
information on how one might use these resources is available in the section called Shared

Reading Resources.
Types of Reading Materials: Shared Reading provides an excellent opportunity for teachers to model the integrated use of the cueing systems and strategies for reading that can be applied to unfamiliar reading (for more info see Print Literacy K–3 Series). New concepts and strategies are best introduced during Shared Reading before guided practice or independent reading takes place. The shared reading experience also provides the opportunity for the teacher to share different genres, or types of books, with students and familiarize them with some of their text features (Taberski, 2000). Following are examples of the variety of print materials that can be used for Shared Reading:

Shared Reading Process:
A shared reading session may be conducted in many ways, depending on the needs of the students and the teaching objectives determined by the teacher.
Shared reading with strong teacher support and guided reading with less teacher support are two ways the teacher can give students practice and immediate feedback, as they develop the
skills and strategies necessary for successful decoding and comprehension. This section will
provide a brief description of how to conduct a shared reading session. This description will be divided into three reading sections: Before, During, and After reading.

• Big books and lap books (see Appendix B)
• Wall charts/stories
• Poetry
• Chants or legends
• Songs
• Morning message
• Classroom news
• Language experience stories
• Text constructed and used on overhead projector


Before: In shared reading, the teacher introduces the story, talking about the title, cover, and title page. It is a good time to engage the students in what they see in the cover picture, and what they think it tells them about the story to be read. Do not neglect the back cover of the book, as it often provides an interesting picture clue to what will happen in the story. During the introduction, the teacher conducts a picture walk through the book, briefly pointing out pecific character actions or events, asking probing questions to engage the students in thinking about the pictures and story, but not telling the story.

During: The very first reading is generally for enjoyment. The teacher points to each word as it is read. Students are asked to follow along “with their eyes.” Read the text as naturally as possible, phrased and fluent, though you may choose to slow the pace just a little for students to join in. Model realistic reactions to the text and use appropriate voice intonation. Again, the teacher may pause from time to time asking students to predict a word, phrase or to make predictions about what is happening. During the read, the teacher may ask students to confirm their predictions by asking, “Were you right/correct?” After: After reading, the teacher can take students back to the point of making predictions, whether at the word or story level, and ask how they knew they were right or how they knew if their prediction wasn’t quite correct.
Giving students this chance to talk about their thinking is very powerful and ensures their full participation. The teacher asks open-ended questions and helps students build connections to the text by activating students’ prior knowledge to the theme or main idea of the book. The second and subsequent readings allow for the students to chime in with now familiar words and phrases. In some cases, students and teachers can take turnsreading (e.g., the teacher reads the left side and students read the right side). Other ways to extend the Shared Reading experience can be found in the Extending Shared Reading section.


Shared Reading Resources:

• The pointer may be used in guiding the reading, pointingto the words as they are read, though it is important thatthe teacher or other experienced reader model reading with phrased fluency. Avoid the tendency to read word by word. In rereading of familiar text, students may be called upon to use the pointer during reading or to point out specific words being studied.

• Highlight with a yellow marker or highlighter pen the repetitive words, repetitive phrases, or frequently occurring words that the students already know. This can be accomplished with the students or prepared ahead of time.

• Have students read the highlighted words or phrases after the second or third reading, while the teacher reads the other words.

• Cover up (Post-It sheets work very well) to mask key portions of the text to focus on vocabulary or specific aspects of print, such as the beginning of a few words that support the learning objective or teaching point.

• The teacher can use a file card, running it over the top of the print as if to push the words (though not too fast), encouraging students to read the words with a faster pace moving away from word by word reading.


Extending Shared Reading:

• During subsequent rereading of familiar text in the shared reading experience, a teacher may invite students to revisit the enlarged text for different purposes, one of which is to learn about letters or words. This brief attention to the way letters and words work in the construction of a message gives students new insight to bring to their independent reading (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996).

• Displaying the titles of the shared reading books can be very motivational to emergent readers with the caption: “Books We Have Read Together!”

• Once read, the shared reading books may be kept in an area accessible to students for independent and familiar rereading by students.

• Write the story, or a portion of the story, on sentence strips so that students can retell or build the story by putting the strips in order (McCracken & McCracken, 1995).

• Assign students roles by giving them index cards labeled with each character’s name. The students then wear the role tag and act out the story as a creative drama activity (Fisher & Medvic, 2000).

• Have students write a big book that extends from the storyline by predicting what would happen next if the story were to continue.

• Create puppets for role-playing so that students can dramatize and become the characters (Fisher & Medvic, 2000).

• Have the students draw a picture of a favorite scene or character from the story.

• New stories can be created or produced by the students using the same theme or sentence/language pattern of the book that has been



Clay, M. M. (1995). Reading recovery: A guidebook for Teachers in Training. Auckland
Fisher, B., & Medvic, E.F. (2000). Perspectives on shared reading: Planning and practice.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Fountas, Irene C. and Pinnell, Gay Su. (1996). Guided Reading, Good First Teaching for All
Children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

Lyons, C., Pinnell, G.S. (2001). Systems for Change in Literacy Education: A guide to
professional development, Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

McCarrier, A., Pinnell, G.S., & Fountas, I. C. (2000). Interactive writing: how language & literacy come together, K-2. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

McCracken, M.J., & McCracken, R.A. (1995). Reading, writing, and language (2nd ed.). Winnipeg Manitoba Canada: Peguis.

Mooney, M. (1990). Reading To, With, and By Children. Katonah, NY: Richard C. Owen, Publishers, Inc.

Routman (2000) Conversations. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

Ruddell, R.B. (1999). Teaching children to read and write: Becoming an influential teacher (2nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Taberski, S (2000). On Solid Ground strategies for teaching reading K-3. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

Weaver, C. (1994). Reading Process and Practice. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann